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ID Showcase – Honors 37W and ChatGPT

A ChatGPT Experiment in Honors 37W

This showcase is an extension of an earlier talk Laurel Westrup gave as part of the Spring 2023 “AI in Action” event. It will focus on a specific use of ChatGPT in a Spring 2023 Honors Collegium Writing II course, “Sampling and Remix: The Aesthetics and Politics of Cultural Appropriation.”

Honors 37W, which focuses on cultural borrowing of many kinds, was an apt forum for discussion of generative artificial intelligence (Gen-AI) and large language models (LLMs) that draw on borrowed sources in order to create text. The instructor re-designed a staple course assignment to provide students an opportunity to try out and reflect on co-writing with a chatbot. The showcase will:

  • Provide context and a rationale for this particular use of ChatGPT
  • Discuss the assignment design
  • Review student responses to the assignment
  • Offer some thoughts on integrating ChatGPT into our courses based on this experiment 

Presenter Bio

Laurel Westrup is a Continuing Lecturer with Writing Programs and the Honors Program and the Coordinator of the Graduate Certificate in Writing Pedagogy (GCWP). She teaches courses across Writing Programs’ curriculum, from first-year composition and Writing II to upper division courses in the Professional Writing Minor, and she also teaches graduate pedagogy courses with the GCWP. She received a UCLA Distinguished Teaching Award in 2023.

AI Resources for Learning Design

AI Resources for Learning Design

Sample syllabi + syllabus formats and sections

Syllabus Statements on the Use of AI in Courses

AI for Assignment & Learning Design

  • Stanford University. Curricular Resources About AI for Teaching (CRAFT)
  • Trust, T. (2023). Chat GPT & Education, UMass (Amherst); including:
    • What ChatGPT Can Do, pp. 18-39;
    • What Chat GPT Can’t Do (Yet), pp. 40-42.
  • UNESCO. (2023). Chat GPT and AI in Higher Education: Quick Start Guide. See the table on page 9.
  • Watkins, R. Update Your Course Syllabus for ChatGPT – GWU
  • Young J. (2023). Why I’m Excited About ChatGPT: Here are 10 ways ChatGPT will be a boon to first-year writing instruction, Jennie Young writes.
  • Kim DeBacco’s (untested) assignment idea:
    • Ask your students to input into ChatGPT the assignment prompt (eg. compare and contrast 2 films on the same topic).
    • They must then analyze what Chat GPT generates first time round: what it got right, wrong, what’s missing, what’s not emphasized that should have been, and perhaps more, depending on the original prompt and your imagination – or indeed the conceptual demands of the course!
    • Ask the students to submit the initial AI-generated raw version to you, along with their critical analysis of the AI-generated piece in light of the other course-related material (eg. films or readings) you were asking them to compare & contrast, or analyze.

The World of AI Tools

Using ChatGPT for Syllabus Refresh

Syllabus Refresh – Prompt Engineering for ChatGPT

The following are notes from OTL’s session for the AI in Action series.

Kim DeBacco and Kate Schaller worked with faculty to generate and regenerate a course syllabus. Together they investigated prompt engineering to iteratively refine their choices.

Session materials:

Ask Chat GPT to create a syllabus

Initial prompt:

Design a syllabus for an introductory, undergraduate-level university course about "The Psychology of Aging".

Sample refining prompt:

Regenerate this syllabus to include the following syllabus sections:

Course title: “The Psychology of Aging” (PSY136) 
Instructor Information: Kim DeBacco, PhD; kdebacco@online.ucla.edu
TA Information: Qiwen Moore, David Christomakis. 
Contact Information: tba
Course Prerequisites: PSY124
Course Description:
Learning Outcomes for this Course:
Course Materials:
Technical Requirements (Bruin Learn, browsers etc.)
How to Succeed in this Course (Expectations for Students, Study Advice & Tips)
Creating an Inclusive Classroom Community (Instructor, TA, and Community Expectations)
Course Schedule (Dates & Topics, Readings)
Predictable Weekly Pattern (for Students)
How Your Learning Will Be Assessed (Grading Policy)
Information about the Course Assignments
Link to the Quarter dates in the UCLA Academic calendar 
The class dates and times: Tuesday 10am - 12noon; Thursdays 10am - 12 noon
Link to UCLA resources for Student Well-being
Link to UCLA Policy on Academic Integrity

Model the prompt by inputting two or three past syllabi:

Integrate information, readings and topics from this syllabus. Do not include the dates.

NOTE: The example syllabi were freely provided, and previously downloaded from merlot.org

Additional Refining Steps

Provide a list of readings with links; link to a textbook, etc.

Add your lists of readings – Required/Essential, Recommended, etc.

Integrate these readings into the syllabus schedule:

Park, D.C., K. Warner Schaie, K. Schaie, S. L. Willis, S. Willis. Handbook of the Psychology of Aging. 7th edition.

Provide a focused, scripted course description, to narrow and specify content.

Regenerate the syllabus to reflect this description: [your course description goes here]

Read closely and correct!

  • Add your emphases, your voice and values, special sections, and more.
  • Consider sharing your syllabus with a colleague for feedback.

Solicit student feedback

After the quarter is over, ask (some of) your students to give you annotated feedback on your syllabus. Ask them to add comments all over it:

  • what worked well;
  • what advice would they give future students;
  • what would they change;
  • which readings and media made sense;
  • which readings were tough but worthwhile;

and so on…

See also the original session document.

ChatGPT-Generated Quiz Instructions

Advice from ChatGPT on how to best use ChatGPT to create quiz questions

Instructions Generated by AI

Here are some instructions for college instructors to use ChatGPT to author low stakes quizzes. By following these steps, you can use ChatGPT to create low-stakes quizzes that assess your students’ knowledge and understanding of course concepts.

Identify the Topic

Decide on the topic for the quiz. This could be a specific concept or a broad subject area.

Determine the Learning Objectives

Identify the learning objectives you want your students to achieve through the quiz. These objectives should be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART).

Choose the Quiz Type

Determine the type of quiz you want to create. This could be a multiple-choice, true/false, or short answer quiz.

Provide ChatGPT with the Question

Use ChatGPT to generate questions related to the learning objectives and the chosen quiz type. You can provide ChatGPT with a prompt, such as “Please generate five multiple-choice questions about the topic of X,” and it will provide you with questions to choose from.

Review and Edit Questions

Review the questions generated by ChatGPT and edit them as needed. Ensure that the questions are clear, concise, and aligned with the learning objectives.

Create Answer Choices

If you’re creating a multiple-choice quiz, provide ChatGPT with answer choices for each question. Ensure that the answer choices are plausible and that one option is clearly the correct answer.

Finalize the Quiz

Once you’ve reviewed and edited the questions and answer choices, finalize the quiz by creating a clear and concise set of instructions for your students, specifying the time limit, grading criteria, and any other relevant information.

Administer the Quiz

Administer the quiz to your students through your preferred learning management system (LMS) or other means of distribution.

Grade the Quiz

Once the quiz is completed, grade the responses according to the grading criteria you established.

Provide Feedback

Provide feedback to your students on their performance on the quiz, including areas where they did well and areas where they could improve.

Suggestions for getting better results when generating quiz questions using ChatGPT

Be Specific with Your Prompts

The more specific your prompts are, the better the results will be. Instead of asking ChatGPT to generate questions about a broad topic, try to provide a specific question or scenario to prompt the AI. This will help ChatGPT understand what type of questions you’re looking for and generate more relevant and focused results.

Provide Additional Context

Providing additional context to ChatGPT can help it generate more relevant and accurate questions. For example, if you’re asking ChatGPT to generate questions about a historical figure, provide some additional context about their life, achievements, and legacy.

Use Proper Grammar and Syntax

ChatGPT works best with clear and grammatically correct input. If you use improper grammar or sentence structure in your prompts, ChatGPT may generate questions that are difficult to understand or nonsensical.

Choose the Right Quiz Type

Different quiz types require different types of prompts. For example, if you’re creating a multiple-choice quiz, provide ChatGPT with answer choices for each question. If you’re creating a short-answer quiz, provide ChatGPT with examples of possible answers to the question.

Review and Edit Generated Questions

ChatGPT is not perfect and may generate questions that are unclear or irrelevant. It’s important to review and edit the generated questions to ensure that they align with your learning objectives and are appropriate for your students.

Using ChatGPT to Write Quiz Questions

Using ChatGPT to Write Quiz Questions

The following are notes from OTL’s session for the AI in Action series.

Mark Kaysar and Agustin Ríos used AI to create quiz questions with different question types. They also prompted ChatGPT to properly format a quiz for uploading into Bruin Learn.

Can ChatGPT help faculty create and format low stakes assessments for using in Canvas?

Demo Question Generation

  • Question Types
  • Multiple Choice
  • True/False
  • Fill in the blank
  • Short Answer
  • Short Essay
  • Adding feedback to answers

Quiz Formatting

When working in ChatGPT, if you include the format instructions shown below you will receive questions that are ready for upload to Canvas. ChatGPT will usually respond in the format you tell it to use, but if it does not, resubmit and ask it to reformat.

Please create all quiz questions using the following format. Each choice needs to start with a lower case alphabet, 
a, b, c, d, etc. with a close parenthesis. The correct choice is designated with an asterisk.

1. What is 2+3?
a) 6
b) 1
*c) 5
d) 10

Sample ChatGPT Prompts

Provide a topic

Can you write some multiple choice questions about [Insert topic]?

Provide a link to a reading

Please write multiple choice questions to evaluate this content.
[paste content]

1.2 The Weakness of Early Patent Systems - Introduction to Intellectual Property | OpenStax

Provide a link to a Canvas page

Please write multiple choice questions to evaluate this content.

Can you provide feedback on why the incorrect items are incorrect?
[paste content]

https://canvas.ucdavis.edu/courses/34528/pages/being-present-in-your-online-course

Provide a desired outcome

Please write multiple choice questions that evaluate this outcome [paste outcome]

Analyze how the costume designer’s interpretation of the screenplay is affected by the 
tone of the politics of the era and the pressures from the studio

Provide a video script or video captions

Please write multiple choice questions to evaluate this content.

[paste content]

Provide a set of answers

Please write multiple choice questions that have the following as answers.

[paste answers]

Provide similar questions to use as a model

Please write multiple choice questions that evaluate the same content as this question.

[paste question]

Uploading to Canvas

Before you can upload the quiz into Canvas, you need to save the questions in the QTI file type.

Step one

Step two

This will create a quiz with your new questions.

See also the original session document.

Using ChatGPT in Conversations with IDs

Using ChatGPT to Lead In-depth Conversations with Instructional Designers

The following are notes from OTL’s session for the AI in Action series.

Sirui Wang and Brittany Goodwell explored possible ways to use ChatGPT to start thinking about different teaching and learning challenges using two scenarios to begin instructional design conversations between faculty and instructional designers. Both scenarios included questions and requests often asked by faculty. There were opportunities to interact with ChatGPT and instructional designers.

How can ChatGPT be involved in the course design process?

  • ChatGPT integrates related information and output in a well-structured way. The advantage of using this generative AI enhances the consultation process with higher efficiency.
  • The conservation style allows the information to be built upon one another, forming a useful dialogue designers can share later.
  • Using ChatGPT in the initiative process of an instructional design consultation helps focus on what faculty needs and narrow the topics, making the discussion with instructional designers more efficient and allowing in-depth discussion.

However, what ChatGPT provides is usually very surface and general, and instructional designers must step in and continue the in-depth conversation.

Instructional Designers’ Roles in the AI Age

  • In-depth conversation
  • Connect with the real course design
  • Ensure equity and inclusion
  • Create personalized learning experiences that adapt to the needs of individual learners
  • Incorporate gamification and simulations to make learning more interactive and engaging
  • Share experience

Scenario 1 – Identify the Teaching and Learning Challenges

ChatGPT Screenshot 1: Engaging students more effectively

How to use ChatGPT to begin the conversation?

  • Start with the basic question/challenge
  • Go through the options, and see if there is anything that interests you
  • Ask for or think of more specific questions, such as #5, why frequent feedback will engage students more efficiently, how to provide frequent feedback, what types of feedback can be provided, etc.

But ChatGPT does not have the accurate context for what it outputs, so a continued conversation with instructional designers are strongly encouraged.

How to continue the topic with an Instructional Designer?

  • Discuss and continue the specific questions: Why feedback loop is important, especially online? What feedback loops can and will include?
  • Clarify the focus: what could be a good fit for your class? How do involve the three parties in a class: instructor, TAs, and students?
  • The deeper conversations: how does it align with other class pieces?
  • Access to other successful course design experiences from different courses

Scenario 2 – Educational Technology Recommendations

Screenshot 2: ChatGPT advice on good class technologies
Screenshot 3: Refining ChatGPT session

How to continue the topic with an Instructional Designer?

  1. Review and refine the recommendations: The faculty member could work with the instructional designer to review the recommendations generated by ChatGPT and refine them based on their specific course needs. The instructional designer could help the faculty member evaluate the options based on factors such as ease of use, accessibility, cost, and pedagogical value.
  2. Identify and address potential challenges: The faculty member and instructional designer could discuss potential challenges that may arise from implementing the selected educational technology in their course. This could include issues related to technology integration, student engagement, and support for students who may have varying levels of technological proficiency.
  3. Explore implementation strategies: The faculty member and instructional designer could work together to explore implementation strategies for the educational technology recommendations.
  4. Determine next steps: The faculty member and instructional designer could determine next steps for moving forward with the implementation of the selected educational technology. This could include identifying any additional support or resources needed, setting timelines for implementation, and designing appropriate activities.

See also the original session document.

AI in Action – Course Design Opportunities with AI

Course Design Opportunities with AI

On May 16, 2023, as part of the campus series, “AI in Action: Exploring AI’s Potential in Teaching and Learning,” OTL instructional designers worked with over 30 participants across three breakout rooms to explore ways that AI can be used to enhance teaching and learning.

  • Using ChatGPT to Lead In-depth Conversations with Instructional Designers: Sirui Wang and Brittany Goodwell explored possible ways to use ChatGPT to start thinking about different teaching and learning challenges using two scenarios to begin instructional design conversations between faculty and instructional designers. Both scenarios included questions and requests often asked by faculty. There were opportunities to interact with ChatGPT and instructional designers.
  • Using ChatGPT to Write Quiz Questions: Mark Kaysar and Agustin Ríos used AI to create quiz questions with different question types. They also prompted ChatGPT to properly format a quiz for uploading into Bruin Learn.
  • Syllabus Refresh Using Prompt Engineering in ChatGPT: Kim DeBacco and Kate Schaller worked with faculty to generate and regenerate a course syllabus. Together they investigated prompt engineering to iteratively refine their choices.

Commonly Used AI Terms

Commonly Used AI Terms


ChatGPT Terms


Note: These terms are based on the version of ChatGPT freely available (as of this writing, May 2023). ChatGPT, a subscription service, uses ChatGPT 4. The technology is rapidly changing and these terms will as well. For example, as of this writing, ChatGPT can only take a text prompt, but the ability to upload images is expected to be available soon in ChatGPT4.

  • ChatGPT: A system/service/tool that generates text from a “prompt” input.
  • Prompt: Text input, such as a sentence, paragraphs, or whole pages of text. The prompt is the request for which ChatGPT generates a response.
  • Session: A set of interactions with ChatGPT in a browser. A user’s interaction with ChatGPT within a session can helps refine the prompts and the output. Once a user closes their browser or logs out, the session terminates. Unlike Siri, Alexa, and Google Assistant, at this point in its development ChatGPT does not “remember” a user and does not carry over conversations between sessions.
  • GPT: “Generative Pre-trained Transformer” – A type of artificial intelligence model.
    • Generative: The system creates output
    • Pre-Trained: The system is trained with labeled data (see supervised learning, below)
    • Transformer: A type of artificial intelligence model.
  • GPT-3, GPT-3.5, GPT-4: The models that power services such as DALL-E and ChatGPT.
    • The initial public release of ChatGPT was based on GPT-3, then quickly updated to use GPT-3.5. GPT-3 and GPT-3.5 are examples of “large language models.”
    • In March 2023, OpenAI announced GPT-4 with improved functionality and expanded capabilities, including the ability to work with images. As such, GPT-4 is a “large multimodal model.”

Additional AI Terms


When one approaches artificial intelligence from a field other than computer science, the use of familiar terms from other contexts can be confusing.

  • Model: At its most simple level, a calculating processor. Like a handheld calculator, a model takes an input and produces an output. There are many types of models that take a particular type of input, such as text or images, or a combination, such as text and images.
  • Training: Providing input to a model from a source. For GPT-x, the “training data” is a corpora of pre-2022 documents from the Internet.
  • Bias: In a statistical context, bias refers to a non-random data set used to train a model. For example, a data set intended for a world language application but drawn only from English novels, or a data set intended for general architectural design but consisting only of images of seaside houses, are said to be “biased training data.”
  • Learning is found in computer science and statistical analysis terms such as “machine learning” and “deep learning.” In the context of artificial intelligence, “learning” is when a system ingests information and, through its processing model, develops output. Two common forms of machine learning are:
    • Supervised Learning: A model using labeled data, such as a collection of images labeled as “bicycles.”
    • Unsupervised Learning: A model using unlabeled data.

To understand the difference between these two forms, with supervised learning, think of a kindergarten teacher who shows a child objects made from Legos and tells the student, “Here are 5 examples of houses, and here are 5 examples of cars.” By instructing the student which items are houses and which are cars (i.e., labeling the data), the teacher is supervising the learning. The child then learns to distinguish which features of a house make it characteristic of a house (such as having a porch, windows, and doors), and which features of a car make it characteristic of a car (such as having an engine, wheels, and seats).

In contrast, with unsupervised learning, the data has no labels. The kindergarten teacher would just say to the child, “Here are 10 Lego objects,” but does not tell the student which 5 objects are cars and which 5 objects are houses (i.e., unlabeled data). The child then compares the objects to each other and identifies patterns. Without knowing what the objects are called, the student may realize that 5 objects share common characteristics and therefore groups them together. The other 5 objects look similar to each other, and so the student puts them into a separate group.

The words in a text corpora are annotated with parts-of-speech, semantic roles, syntactic structures, language identifiers, and other characteristics. In earlier days of the development of artificial intelligence, computer time was very costly so creating curated datasets was a computational necessity. While having experts hand-code supervised learning datasets is time consuming and expensive, it resulted in very high-quality outputs. For example, when the Brown Corpus (1961) — the first million-word electronic dataset — was developed, each term in 500 works were manually tagged with a genre.

Unsupervised learning is computationally more challenging because the training data does not have labels, but modern computing resources are inexpensive and readily available and as a result can computationally process much greater raw data.


The term “deep learning” has different meanings in teaching and learning and artificial intelligence. Kim DeBacco shares this definition in the realm of teaching and learning: “Martin & Saljo (the original authors of the theory), and Entwistle, Ramsden, Prosser, Trigwell, differentiate deep learning (e.g., the ability to apply new concepts to a different context) from surface learning (e.g., cramming for exams). Surface learning relies on short-term memory: in one ear, and out the other! The constructive alignment theory (sometimes called backward design) holds that if course-level learning outcomes, activities, and assessments are closely aligned, then students will engage in deep learning which lasts over time.

In their Deep Learning (MIT Press, 2016), Goodfellow, et al, provide this definition: “A major source of difficulty in many real-world artificial intelligence applications is that many of the factors of variation influence every single piece of data we are able to observe. … Deep learning solves this central problem in representation learning by introducing representations that are expressed in terms of other, simpler representations. Deep learning enables the computer to build complex concepts out of simpler concepts.” (5)

  • Network: In artificial intelligence, often used in the phrase, “neural network.” Inspired by the neurons of the brain, this type of a network uses linked computers, wherein the output of one “node” (simply: a computer) is sent to multiple other nodes. These nodes, layered in a hierarchical fashion like the boxes of a family tree or an org chart, form the network. The output of one layer becomes the input for the next layer, and the last layer produces the result from the previous computations.

ChatGPT and AI Resources

ChatGPT and AI Resources

Categories

UC Resources

Responsible Artificial Intelligence: Recommendations to Guide the University of California’s Artificial Intelligence StrategyUniversity of California Presidential Working Group on Artificial Intelligence. Oct. 2021.

The working group’s report presents UC Ethical AI Principles to guide the development and application of AI in ways that are consistent with UC’s mission and values. The final report provides recommendations to President Drake regarding best practices and guidance to:

  • Develop methods and mechanisms to operationalize the UC Ethical AI Principles in the use of existing AI systems and the development of new applications of AI within the UC system, especially in areas likely to impact individual rights, including Health, Human Resources, Policing, and Student Experience.
  • Make further recommendations on appropriate data stewardship standards for UC data that may be used in the development and use of AI-enabled tools and systems.
  • Create the foundation for a permanent council that will further the principles, standards, methods, and mechanisms developed by this working group to counter the potentially harmful effects of AI and strengthen positive outcomes within the UC system.
Teaching Guidance for ChatGPT and Related AI Developments.” UCLA Academic Senate. 27 Mar. 2023

What you need to know:

  • ChatGPT and related AI tools are rapidly transforming higher education
  • Instructors are encouraged to clarify and communicate expectations to students
  • Consider incorporating academic integrity policies into your syllabus
Guidance for the Use of Generative AI.” UCLA.

“This document is meant as a guideline for instructors on what to consider as these tools evolve. We will provide strategies for adopting AI technologies in a responsible, ethical manner, and innovating within each discipline, major, and course. Exploring and communicating about the opportunities and limitations to using these tools will allow instructors and students to critically think about how knowledge is created.”

AI In Action: Exploring AI’s Potential in Teaching and Learning. UCLA. May-June 2023.

UCLA’s Center for the Advancement of Teaching (CAT), the Center for Education, Innovation, and Learning in the Sciences (CEILS), the Excellence in Pedagogy and Innovative Classrooms program (EPIC), Online Teaching and Learning (OTL), the Bruin Learn Center of Excellence (COE), the Writing Programs, and Humanities Technology (HumTech) collaborated on this series.

OTL’s session was titled, “Course Design Opportunities with AI” and included breakout rooms focused on:

Gregg, Jess. “What’s all the buzz about ChatGPT?CEILS Ed Talk. 15 Feb. 2023.

Ethical Issues with ChatGPT; What is ChatGPT? (with tour); Inflection Points: Academic Integrity & How to Utilize ChatGPT; Activity and Discussion

Malik, Jitendra, et al. “The Berkeley lectures on the status and future of AI.UC Berkeley Lecture Series. Spring 2023

The primary architect of ChatGPT and leading Berkeley AI faculty will present insights and viewpoints in a series of seven public lectures presented by The Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society and the Banatao Institute (CITRIS), Berkeley Artificial Intelligence Research Lab (BAIR), Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences (EECS), the Academic Senate and UC Berkeley.

Merrill, Margaret. “Two Faculty Presentations on Teaching with ChatGPT – Video from a Recent DOLCE.The Wheel: The Instructional Technology Blog of UC Davis 6 Mar. 2023

Presentations and resources from Andrea Ross and Lisa Sperber from the University Writing Program.

Noble, Safiya, Ramesh Srinivasan, and John Villasenor, et al. “What is ChatGPT, and how does it relate to UCLA’s academic mission?UCLA Virtual Town Hall. 3 Mar. 2023.

Recording of wide-ranging discussion with panel of UCLA experts.

UC Irvine, Division of Teaching Excellence and Innovation. “ChatGPT.

Provides instructors with some initial information on the tool and offers recommendations for elements they should address in their courses/syllabi.

Yuan, Leslie, et al. “ChatGPT, Parlor Trick or More? For Research, to Write This Blog…?UC IT Blog.

“Our team … thought you would enjoy seeing what ChatGPT could do with our original write-up if we instructed the tool to rewrite our words.”

Implications for Teaching and Learning

Alby, Cynthia. “ChatGPT: A Must-See Before the Semester Begins.” Faculty Focus, 9 Jan. 2023.

“While foundational knowledge is required for higher-order thinking, we often focus primarily or almost exclusively on the foundational. In this new paradigm, we would point students toward the appropriate modules to develop that foundational knowledge, and we’d move students as soon as possible into problem/project/case-based learning, much of it personalized and experiential or field-based. We would be mostly working with, working alongside, facilitating and supporting, and letting AI do some of the heavy lifting.”

Alexander, Bryan. “What Might ChatGPT Mean for Higher Education?YouTube, 15 Dec. 2022.

“In this special Future Trends Forum session we’ll collectively explore this new technology. How does the chatbot work? How might it reshape academic writing? Does it herald an age of AI transforming society, or is it really BS? Experts who joined us on stage includes Brent A. Anders, Rob Fentress, Philip Lingard, John Warner, Jess Stahl, and Anne Fensie.”

Alexander, Bryan. “What Might ChatGPT Mean for Higher Education, Continued.YouTube, 23 Dec. 2022.

“Last week we hosted a session on this topic. Demand was so great for it, and so many questions remained, that we followed up right away with a sequel. What do we know about how the chatbot works? Does ChatGPT pose an existential threat to higher education, or instead offer new ways of teaching, learning, and researching?”

Barre, Betsy. “Will ChatGPT Make Us Better, Happier Teachers?Center for the Advancement of Teaching, 20 Jan. 2023.

“For all of these reasons, we should proceed with caution. But used wisely, ChatGPT may actually make our teaching more rather than less humane. By using AI to streamline our analytic tasks, we can devote more time to fostering deeper connections with our students – connections that not only benefit them, but also serve as a much-needed source of rejuvenation for educators who have been stretched thin by years of teaching during a pandemic. In this sense, ChatGPT can be seen as a gift – a tool that can help us reconnect with our students and reignite our passion for teaching.”

Basbøll, Thomas. “Examining the Moment.Inframethodology, 14 Dec. 2022.

“In this post, I will suggest a form of examination that I consider essentially ideal, even if we had no worries about plagiarism or artifical intelligence, but one that the increasingly sophisticated technologies in this area now make virtually necessary. That is, I’m hopeful that the fact that the take-home assignment no longer constitutes a serious test of the student’s knowledge of a subject or ability to write about it will force us to adopt a form of testing that was always much more serious.”

Bowers-Abbott, Miriam. “What Are We Doing About AI Essays?Faculty Focus, 4 Jan. 2023.

“A few experiments with online AI software services suggest some ways to address AI essay cheating, and interventions will require refining and revisiting course prompts.”

Bowman, Emma. “A College Student Created an App That Can Tell Whether AI Wrote an Essay.NPR, 9 Jan. 2023.

“Edward Tian, a 22-year-old senior at Princeton University, has built an app to detect whether text is written by ChatGPT”

Bruff, Derek. “Three Things to Know about AI Tools and Teaching.Agile Learning, 20 Dec. 2022.

I hope these three observations are useful as you make sense of this new technology landscape. Here they are again for easy reference:

  • We are going to have to start teaching our students how AI generation tools work.
  • When used intentionally, AI tools can augment and enhance student learning, even towards traditional learning goals.
  • We will need to update our learning goals for students in light of new AI tools, and that can be a good thing.
Caines, Autumm. “ChatGPT and Good Intentions in Higher Ed.Is a Liminal Space, 29 Dec. 2022.

“I am skeptical of the tech inevitability standpoint that ChatGPT is here and we just have to live with it. The all out rejection of this tech is appealing to me as it seems tied to dark ideologies and does seem different, perhaps more dangerous, than stuff that has come before. I’m just not sure how to go about that all out rejection. I don’t think trying to hide ChatGPT from students is going to get us very far and I’ve already expressed my distaste for cop shit. In terms of practice, the rocks and the hard places are piling up on me.”

Cassidy, Caitlin. “Australian Universities to Return to ‘Pen and Paper’ Exams after Students Caught Using AI to Write Essays.The Guardian, 10 Jan. 2023.

“Australia’s leading universities say redesign of how students are assessed is ‘critical’ in the face of a revolution in computer-generated text”

Creswell Baez, Johanna. “The Impact of ChatGPT and AI on Higher Education: Navigating the Rapidly Changing Landscape.Medium, 13 Jan. 2023.

“Before alarm spreads about the impact on student learning, let us consider the historical value of technological advances in education. The calculator, once banned in classrooms, is now a common sight on school supply lists and in the college classroom. Instructors use calculators to explore deeper connections with mathematical concepts and instead of limiting their use, can be more intentional about how they are used to encourage critical thinking among students. Similarly, ChatGPT and other AI technologies are here to stay, and we hope that academics will actively participate in decisions around their use and integration in higher education. We can influence how ChatGPT and other AI tools might be brought into higher education to assist students in developing things like critical thinking and executive function skills.”

Cummings, Robert. “AI Writing Technologies Will Force Instructors to Adapt.Chronicle of Higher Education, 19 Sept. 2022.

“These new AI-powered writing generation technologies are going to change college writing substantially. But they won’t end college writing. Instead, we’re going to need to create some new guard rails for the assumptions we make about writing assignments in higher education. What will that future look like?”

D’Agostino, Susan. “ChatGPT Advice Academics Can Use Now.Inside Higher Ed, 12 Jan. 2023.

“To harness the potential and avert the risks of OpenAI’s new chat bot, academics should think a few years out, invite students into the conversation and—most of all—experiment, not panic.”

D’Agostino, Susan. “AI Writing Detection: A Losing Battle Worth Fighting.Inside Higher Ed, 20 Jan. 2023.

“Human- and machine-generated prose may one day be indistinguishable. But that does not quell academics’ search for an answer to the question ‘What makes prose human?'”

Dillard, Sarah. “Schools Must Embrace the Looming Disruption of ChatGPT.The 74, 4 Jan. 2023.

“Educators can dig in their heels, attempting to lock down assignments and assessments, or use this new technology to imagine what comes next.”

Eaton, Lance, ed. “Classroom Policies for AI Generative Tools.

“This resource is created by Lance Eaton for the purposes of sharing and helping other instructors see the range of policies available by other educators to help in the development of their own for navigating AI-Generative Tools (such as ChatGPT, MidJourney, Dall-E, etc).”

Eaton, Sarah. “Sarah’s Thoughts: Artificial Intelligence and Academic Integrity.Learning, Teaching and Leadership, 9 Dec. 2022.

“if you are afraid of an explosion of cheating in your classes because of ChatGPT or any other new technological advance, you are not alone, but honestly, technology isn’t the problem. Stay tuned for more . . .”

eBildungslabor-Blog. “Einordnung und Nutzung von KI in der Bildung.eBildungslabor, 11 Dec. 2022.

“My suggestion: In education, tools of so-called artificial intelligence can best be classified as a further development of search engines.” [from original using Google Translate]

Feldstein, Michael. “I Would Have Cheated in College Using ChatGPT.E-Literate, 16 Dec. 2022.

“I can see the shape of a pedagogical process—and preferably a supporting end-to-end tool—that teaches many of the skills involved with good writing, including some hard ones like checking sources and editing—while including some elements of creativity. If it is scaffolded properly—again, with the right tool and process but also with a good, solid rubric—it could enable educators to spend more of their time honing in on specific aspects of the writing process with less drudgery.”

Fyfe, Paul. “How to Cheat on Your Final Paper: Assigning AI for Student Writing.AI & SOCIETY, Mar. 2022.

“This paper shares results from a pedagogical experiment that assigns undergraduates to “cheat” on a final class essay by requiring their use of text-generating AI software.”

Gleason, Nancy. “ChatGPT and the Rise of AI Writers: How Should Higher Education Respond?Times Higher Education. 9 Dec. 2022.

“We need to embrace these tools and integrate them into pedagogies and policies. Lockdown browsers, strict dismissal policies and forbidding the use of these platforms is not a sustainable way forward.”

Groves, Mike. “If You Can’t Beat GPT3, Join It.Times Higher Education, 16 Dec. 2022

“Assessment is also affected. To me, it seems anachronistic to prepare students for an academic world where online translation does not exist. If we are preparing them to write essays and reports that can be supported by online translation, we should allow them to develop these competencies as part of the assessment process.”

Heid, Markham. “Here’s How Teachers Can Foil ChatGPT: Handwritten Essays.Washington Post, 29 Dec. 2022.

“there’s another fix—one that might have been worth implementing even before the arrival of ChatGPT: Make students write out essays by hand. Apart from outflanking the latest AI, a return to handwritten essays could benefit students in meaningful ways.”

Heikkilä, Melissa. “How AI-Generated Text Is Poisoning the Internet.MIT Technology Review, 20 Dec. 2022.

“The proliferation of these easily accessible large language models raises an important question: How will we know whether what we read online is written by a human or a machine? I’ve just published a story looking into the tools we currently have to spot AI-generated text. Spoiler alert: Today’s detection tool kit is woefully inadequate against ChatGPT. “

Herman, Daniel. “The End of High-School English.The Atlantic, 9 Dec. 2022.

“If you’re looking for historical analogues, this would be like the printing press, the steam drill, and the light bulb having a baby, and that baby having access to the entire corpus of human knowledge and understanding. My life—and the lives of thousands of other teachers and professors, tutors and administrators—is about to drastically change.”

Huang, Kalley. “Alarmed by A.I. Chatbots, Universities Start Revamping How They Teach.The New York Times, 16 Jan. 2023.

“Mr. Aumann decided to transform essay writing for his courses this semester. He plans to require students to write first drafts in the classroom, using browsers that monitor and restrict computer activity. In later drafts, students have to explain each revision. Mr. Aumann, who may forgo essays in subsequent semesters, also plans to weave ChatGPT into lessons by asking students to evaluate the chatbot’s responses.”

Jarry, Jonathan. “I Chatted with an Artificial Intelligence about Quackery.” McGill University Office for Science and Society, 16 Dec. 2022.

“I have done research on microRNAs in the past, but it can be challenging to come up with an easy-to-understand elevator pitch of what a microRNA is and what it does in the body. So I typed into ChatGPT the following request: explain what microRNAs are and what they do at the reading level of a high school freshman. The answer started to appear a few seconds later, one word at a time, as if the complex computer program was typing it out. And it was a good answer!”

Kelley, Kevin Jacob. “Teaching Actual Student Writing in an AI World.” Inside Higher Ed, 19 Jan. 2023.

“I have tested my assignments against multiple AI programs as a faculty member and Writing Across the Curriculum director. I may incorporate this technology in future courses, but for now, here are my 10 strategies that prevent the use of AI by students.”

Kovanovic, Vitomir. “The Dawn of AI Has Come, and Its Implications for Education Couldn’t Be More Significant.The Conversation.

“Moving forward, we’ll need to think of ways AI can be used to support teaching and learning, rather than disrupt it. Here are three ways to do this.”

Krause, Author Steve. “AI Can Save Writing by Killing ‘The College Essay.‘” Steven D. Krause, 10 Dec. 2022.

“Anyway, the point I’m trying to make here (and this is something that I think most people who teach writing regularly take as a given) is that there is a big difference between assigning students to write a “college essay” and teaching students how to write essays or any other genre.”

Lametti, Daniel. “A.I. Could Be Great for College Essays.Slate, 7 Dec. 2022.

“In 2014, a department of the U.K. government published a study of history and English papers produced by online-essay writing services for senior high school students. Most of the papers received a grade of C or lower. Much like the work of ChatGPT, the papers were vague and error-filled. It’s hard to write a good essay when you lack detailed, course-specific knowledge of the content that led to the essay question.”

Malesic, Jonathan. “The Key to Success in College Is so Simple, It’s Almost Never Mentioned.The New York Times, 3 Jan. 2023.

“The willingness to learn is related to the growth mind-set—the belief that your abilities are not fixed but can improve. But there is a key difference: This willingness is a belief not primarily about the self but about the world. It’s a belief that every class offers something worthwhile, even if you don’t know in advance what that something is. Unfortunately, big economic and cultural obstacles stand in opposition to that belief.”

Marche, Stephen. “The College Essay Is Dead.The Atlantic, 6 Dec. 2022.

“The essay, in particular the undergraduate essay, has been the center of humanistic pedagogy for generations. It is the way we teach children how to research, think, and write. That entire tradition is about to be disrupted from the ground up. Kevin Bryan, an associate professor at the University of Toronto, tweeted in astonishment about OpenAI’s new chatbot last week: ‘You can no longer give take-home exams/homework … Even on specific questions that involve combining knowledge across domains, the OpenAI chat is frankly better than the average MBA at this point. It is frankly amazing.’ Neither the engineers building the linguistic tech nor the educators who will encounter the resulting language are prepared for the fallout.”

McMurtrie, Beth. “AI and the Future of Undergraduate Writing.The Chronicle of Higher Education, 13 Dec. 2022.

“Scholars of teaching, writing, and digital literacy say there’s no doubt that tools like ChatGPT will, in some shape or form, become part of everyday writing, the way calculators and computers have become integral to math and science. It is critical, they say, to begin conversations with students and colleagues about how to shape and harness these AI tools as an aid, rather than a substitute, for learning.”

McVey, Christopher. “POV: Artificial Intelligence Is Changing Writing at the University. Let’s Embrace It.BU Today, 5 Dec. 2022.

“If we want to dissuade students from using artificial intelligence to help produce their writing, we need to treat writing differently. If we want to teach writing in our classes, if we want students to use writing as a deliberative, reflective space to facilitate critical thinking, innovation, and self-awareness, we need to move away from framing writing assignments as primarily product-based endeavors.”

Meckler, Laura. “Teachers Are on Alert for Inevitable Cheating after Release of ChatGPT.Washington Post, 28 Dec. 2022.

“The stakes are high. Many teachers agree that learning to write can take place only as students grapple with ideas and put them into sentences. Students start out not knowing what they want to say, and as they write, they figure it out. ‘The process of writing transforms our knowledge,’ said Joshua Wilson, an associate professor in the School of Education at the University of Delaware. ‘That will completely get lost if all you’re doing is jumping to the end product.'”

Miller, Matt. “ChatGPT, Chatbots and Artificial Intelligence in Education.Ditch That Textbook, 17 Dec. 2022.

“AI just stormed into the classroom with the emergence of ChatGPT. How do we teach now that it exists? How can we use it? Here are some ideas.”

Mills, Anna, ed. “AI Text Generators: Sources to Stimulate Discussion among Teachers.”

Compiled for the Writing Across the Curriculum Clearinghouse as part of a larger resource collection: “AI and Teaching Writing: Starting Points for Inquiry.” This is an open and evolving list put together by a writing teacher who is not an expert in the field, with suggestions from a few other more knowledgeable folks.

Mintz, Steven. “AI Unleashed.” Inside Higher Ed, 12 Dec. 2022.

“As a historian I should be cautious and should beware of frenetic enthusiasm. We know all too well that highly touted technologies, like the blockchain, frequently fail to live up to the hype. So let me echo the Lincoln Steffens’s words after visiting the Soviet Union in 1919, fully aware that the phrase is fraught with irony: “I have seen the Future and it works.'”

Mintz, Steven. “Breaking Free From Higher Ed’s Iron Triangle.Inside Higher Ed, 18 Jan. 2023.

“Yes, we can control costs, reduce performance gaps and improve learning outcomes without sacrificing quality or rigor.”

Mintz, Steven. “ChatGPT: Threat or Menace?Inside Higher Ed, 16 Jan. 2023.

“The threat now is to the very knowledge workers who many assumed were invulnerable to technological change. If we fail to instill within our students the advanced skills and expertise that they need in today’s rapidly shifting competitive landscape, they too will be losers in the unending contest between technological innovation and education.”

Mitrano, Tracy. “Coping With ChatGPT.Inside Higher Ed, 17 Jan. 2023.

“Mis- and disinformation is newly comprising about a third of the material of this new course. For the last couple of semesters, I have been inching my way toward including that topic. Given the political landscape globally as well as in the United States, that topic could, and should, be its own course. Artificial intelligence will certainly play a role in that sphere as it emerges in all significant walks of life; take a look, for example, at the essay Bruce Schneier published just yesterday in The New York Times on the subject of lobbying and political influence. We must deal with it. Panic will not help.”

Mollick, Ethan, and Lilach Mollick. “New Modes of Learning Enabled by AI Chatbots: Three Methods and Assignments.” 13 Dec. 2022.

“Chatbots are able to produce high-quality, sophisticated text in natural language. The authors of this paper believe that AI can be used to overcome three barriers to learning in the classroom: improving transfer, breaking the illusion of explanatory depth, and training students to critically evaluate explanations. The paper provides background information and techniques on how AI can be used to overcome these barriers and includes prompts and assignments that teachers can incorporate into their teaching. The goal is to help teachers use the capabilities and drawbacks of AI to improve learning.”

Mollick, Ethan. “All My Classes Suddenly Became AI Classes.One Useful Thing (And Also Some Other Things), 17 Jan. 2023.

“All of my classes have become AI classes. And I wanted to share with you the experiments I am running to integrate AI into class (I will update you later in the semester about how they are going).”

Mondschein, Ken. “Avoiding Cheating by AI: Lessons from Medieval History.Medievalists.Net, 2 Jan. 2023.

“A look at OpenAI’s ChatGPT and how teachers in medieval studies can prevent their students from using it.”

Montclair State. “Practical Responses to ChatGPT.Montclair State University Office for Faculty Excellence.

“ChatGPT is not without precedent or competitors (such as Jasper, Sudowrite, QuillBot, Katteb, etc). Souped-up spell-checkers such as Grammarly, Hemingway, and Word and Google-doc word-processing tools precede ChatGPT and are often used by students to review and correct their writing. Like spellcheck, these tools are useful, addressing spelling, usage, and grammar problems, and some compositional stylistic issues (like overreliance on passive voice). However, they can also be misused when writers accept suggestions quickly and thus run the danger of accepting a poor suggestion. Automation bias is in effect—we often trust an automated suggestion more than we trust ourselves. Further, over-reliance can mean students simply miss opportunities to grow and develop as writers.”

Nerantzi, Chrissi, Sandra Abegglen, Marianna Karatsiori, & Antonio Martínez-Arboleda (Eds.). (2023). “101 Creative Ideas to use AI in Education, A Crowdsourced CollectionZenodo, 23 June 2023

“This open crowdsourced collection by #creativeHE presents a rich tapestry of our collective thinking in the first months of 2023 stitching together potential alternative uses and applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) that could make a difference and create new learning, development, teaching and assessment opportunities.”

Roose, Kevin, et al. “Don’t Ban ChatGPT in Schools. Teach with It.The New York Times, 12 Jan. 2023.

“Even ChatGPT’s flaws—such as the fact that its answers to factual questions are often wrong—can become fodder for a critical thinking exercise. Several teachers told me that they had instructed students to try to trip up ChatGPT, or evaluate its responses the way a teacher would evaluate a student’s.”

Roose, Kevin, et al. “ChatGPT Transforms a Classroom and Is ‘M3GAN’ Real?The New York Times, 13 Jan. 2023.

“A high school teacher on how the new chatbot from OpenAI is transforming her classroom—for the better.”

Schatten, Jeff. “Will Artificial Intelligence Kill College Writing?The Chronicle of Higher Education, 14 Sept. 2022.

“The current iteration of GPT-3 has its quirks and limitations, to be sure. Most notably, it will write absolutely anything. It will generate a full essay on “how George Washington invented the internet” or an eerily informed response to “10 steps a serial killer can take to get away with murder.” In addition, it stumbles over complex writing tasks. It cannot craft a novel or even a decent short story. Its attempts at scholarly writing—I asked it to generate an article on social-role theory and negotiation outcomes—are laughable. But how long before the capability is there? Six months ago, GPT-3 struggled with rudimentary queries, and today it can write a reasonable blog post discussing ‘ways an employee can get a promotion from a reluctant boss.'”

Schiappa, Edward, and Nick Montfort. “Advice Concerning the Increase in AI-Assisted Writing.Post Position, 10 Jan. 2023.

From two MIT professors: “The use of AI/LLM text generation is here to stay. Those of us involved in writing instruction will need to be thoughtful about how it impacts our pedagogy. … We also believe students are here at MIT to learn, and will be willing to follow thoughtfully advanced policies so they can learn to become better communicators. To that end, we hope that what we have offered here will help to open an ongoing conversation.”

Sharples, Mike. “New AI Tools That Can Write Student Essays Require Educators to Rethink Teaching and Assessment.Impact of Social Sciences, 17 May 2022.

“AI tools are available today that can write compelling university level essays. Taking an example of sample essay produced by the GPT-3 transformer, Mike Sharples discusses the implications of this technology for higher education and argues that they should be used to enhance pedagogy, rather than accelerating an ongoing arms race between increasingly sophisticated fraudsters and fraud detectors.”

Sokol, Daniel. “Our Universities Have a Cheating Problem – It’s Time to Bin Online Exams.The Independent, 31 Dec. 2022.

“As a lawyer who represents students accused of cheating, ChatGPT worries me. If we want to maintain the credibility of our universities and the weight of a degree, we must get back to in-person assessments.”

Spencer, John. “Human Skills in a World of Artificial Intelligence.” John Spencer, 9 Dec. 2022.

“In the upcoming years, we’ll need to think about how we can help students develop these critical human skills. It might be inquiry-based learning or project-based learning. But it might also be game-based learning. It might be a lo-fi makerspace. It might be an epic, face-to-face science lab or a sketchnote video, or an interview with community members. Notice that none of these ideas are new. These are the things teachers are already doing when they empower their students with voice and choice. So am I nervous about AI? Absolutely. But am I hopeful? Most definitely. Because I know that teachers will always be at the heart of innovation.”

Stachowiak, Bonni. “How Artificial Intelligence Is Impacting Higher Education, with Cynthia Alby.” no. 448.

“Cynthia Alby discusses how artificial intelligence (like ChatGPT) is impacting higher education on episode 448 of the Teaching in Higher Ed podcast.”

Strang, Brian. “My First Chat with the Bot.” Inside Higher Ed, 12 Jan. 2023.

“Uncanny, creepy and bland: Brian Strang reflects on his chat with the artificial intelligence language model ChatGPT and the threat it does (or doesn’t) pose to writing instruction.”

Thompson, Ben. “AI Homework.” Stratechery by Ben Thompson, 5 Dec. 2022.

“It is an open question as to what jobs will be the first to be disrupted by AI; what became obvious to a bunch of folks this weekend, though, is that there is one universal activity that is under serious threat: homework.”

University of Southern California. “USC Dives into AI Research, Education with New Center for Generative AI and Society.” [Press release.] USC Newsroom 10 Mar. 2023.

“USC President Carol Folt is announcing a new Center for Generative AI and Society to explore the transformative impact of artificial intelligence on culture, education, media and society.”

General, Social, Cultural Issues

Appleton, Maggie. “The Expanding Dark Forest and Generative AI.” M, 1 Jan. 2023.

“But I think the sheer volume and scale of what’s coming will be meaningfully different. And I think we’re unprepared. Or at least, I am.”

Bender, Emily, and Chirag Shah. “All-Knowing Machines Are a Fantasy.IAI TV – Changing How the World Thinks, 13 Dec. 2022.

“The idea of an all-knowing computer program comes from science fiction and should stay there. Despite the seductive fluency of ChatGPT and other language models, they remain unsuitable as sources of knowledge. We must fight against the instinct to trust a human-sounding machine”

Birhane, Abeba. “ChatGPT, Galactica, and the Progress Trap.Wired, 9 Dec. 2022.

“People at the margins of society who are disproportionately impacted by these systems are experts at vetting them, due to their lived experience. Not coincidentally, crucial contributions that demonstrate the failure of these large language models and ways to mitigate the problems are often made by scholars of color—many of them Black women—and junior scholars who are underfunded and working in relatively precarious conditions.”

Bogost, Ian. “ChatGPT Is Dumber Than You Think.The Atlantic, 7 Dec. 2022.

“Treat it like a toy, not a tool.”

Bruff, Derek. “A Bigger, Badder Clippy: Enhancing Student Learning with AI Writing Tools.Agile Learning, 5 Jan. 2023.

On December 22, 2023, Bryan Alexander hosted an edition of his Future Trends Forum focused on ChatGPT and other AI (artificial intelligence) writing generators and their potential impact on education: “I wanted to share a few highlights and observations here on the blog.”

Chen, Brian X. “A.I. Bots Can’t Report This Column. But They Can Improve It.The New York Times, 1 Feb. 2023.

“Given the growing influence of this technology, it’s time to focus on how we can start reaping the benefits in a responsible way. Many A.I. experts and computer scientists agree that these tools can provide a major perk that does no harm: editing our writing.”

Chomsky, Noam, Ian Roberts and Jeffrey Watumull. Noam Chomsky: The False Promise of ChatGPT.New York Times. 8 Mar. 2023

That day may come, but its dawn is not yet breaking, contrary to what can be read in hyperbolic headlines and reckoned by injudicious investments. The Borgesian revelation of understanding has not and will not — and, we submit, cannot — occur if machine learning programs like ChatGPT continue to dominate the field of A.I. However useful these programs may be in some narrow domains (they can be helpful in computer programming, for example, or in suggesting rhymes for light verse), we know from the science of linguistics and the philosophy of knowledge that they differ profoundly from how humans reason and use language. These differences place significant limitations on what these programs can do, encoding them with ineradicable defects.

Cottom, Tressie McMillan. “Human This Christmas.The New York Times, 20 Dec. 2022.

“Humanities, arts and higher education could use a little reminder that we do human. That’s our business, when we do it well. We are as safe from ChatGPT as the Temptations are from Pentatonix.”

Daimler, Daniel. “The Trickster Machine.Kurios & Käuflich, 10 Dec. 2022.

“The machine’s fundamental weakness is a lack of substance beneath the surface. Still, for many requirements in our present state of surface-industrial economy, this might be perfectly good enough. The machine’s greatest strength is our sufficiency with surfaces.”

Dastin, Jeffrey, et al. “Exclusive: ChatGPT Owner OpenAI Projects $1 Billion in Revenue by 2024 – Sources.Reuters, 15 Dec. 2022.

“Three sources briefed on OpenAI’s recent pitch to investors said the organization expects $200 million in revenue next year and $1 billion by 2024. The forecast, first reported by Reuters, represents how some in Silicon Valley are betting the underlying technology will go far beyond splashy and sometimes flawed public demos.”

Denkmann, Libby, and Alec Cowan. “How Will ChatGPT Change the the Future of Information?” [Audio conversation with Emily Bender.] KUOW, 14 Dec. 2022.

“‘The new innovations here—first of all, just more size. It’s got more training data,’ said Emily Bender, a professor of linguistics at the University of Washington and director of the Computational Linguistics Laboratory. ‘And then it had a second training step where they had human raters give responses about how good its responses were, and then it adjusted its distributions to try to get better scores from the human raters.'”

Eliot, Lance. “Sinister Prompting Of Generative AI ChatGPT Such As Email Scamming And The Coding Of Malware Is Sparking Ire By AI Ethics And AI Law.Forbes, 3 Jan. 2023.

“I will herein examine how people are using generative AI for uses that aren’t on the up and up. You can use generative AI such as ChatGPT for all manner of unsavory uses. It is like falling off a log, meaning that it is relatively easy to do bad things and you don’t need to be a rocket scientist to do so.”

Elsen-Rooney, Michael. “NYC Blocks Access to ChatGPT on School Networks as Cheating Fears Swirl.Chalkbeat New York, 3 Jan. 2023.

“The education department blocked access to the program, citing “negative impacts on student learning, and concerns regarding the safety and accuracy of content,” a spokesperson said. The move from the nation’s largest school system could have ripple effects as districts and schools across the country grapple with how to respond to the arrival of the dynamic new technology.”

Esposito, Elena. Artificial Communication: How Algorithms Produce Social Intelligence. [Online book.] 2022.

“In Artificial Communication, Elena Esposito argues that drawing this sort of analogy between algorithms and human intelligence is misleading. If machines contribute to social intelligence, it will not be because they have learned how to think like us but because we have learned how to communicate with them. Esposito proposes that we think of “smart” machines not in terms of artificial intelligence but in terms of artificial communication.”

Golumbia, David. “ChatGPT Should Not Exist.Medium, 14 Dec. 2022.

“While some bias concerns might be addressed by improving the software, creativity concerns are only likely to be exacerbated as software like ChatGPT gets better. Creators and educators might say that ChatGPT should not exist at all, even if it could be freed from bias altogether.”

Gonsalves, Robert A. “Using AI to Create New Comic Strips without Writing Any Code.Medium, 6 Sept. 2022.

“A tutorial on how to use GPT-3 and DALL-E to generate original content for the funny pages”

Graham, Shawn. “Playful Engagement with GPT3.HIST 3812 @ Carleton_U, 2022.

“In this tutorial, we’ll generate a comic strip or a graphic novel. But that’s the easy part. The hard part will be to guide the AI to building something meaningful. And for that, we’ll adapt/adop Jeremiah McCall’s ‘Historical Problem Space Framework.'”

Grant, Nico, and Cade Metz. “A New Chat Bot Is a ‘Code Red’ for Google’s Search Business.The New York Times, 21 Dec. 2022.

“A new wave of chat bots like ChatGPT use artificial intelligence that could reinvent or even replace the traditional internet search engine.”

Haven, Janet. “ChatGPT and the Future of Trust.Predictions for Journalism 2023, Dec. 2022.

“We will see ChatGPT and tools like it used in adversarial ways that are intended to undermine trust in information environments, pushing people away from public discourse to increasingly homogenous communities.”

Heaven, Will Douglas. “Generative AI Is Changing Everything. But What’s Left When the Hype Is Gone?MIT Technology Review, 16 Dec. 2022.

“Artists are caught in the middle of one of the biggest upheavals in a generation. Some will lose work; some will find new opportunities. A few are headed to the courts to fight legal battles over what they view as the misappropriation of images to train models that could replace them.”

Jin, Berber and Miles Kruppa. “ChatGPT Creator Is Talking to Investors About Selling Shares at $29 Billion ValuationWall Street Journal, 5 Jan. 2023.

“OpenAI, the research lab behind the viral ChatGPT chatbot, is in talks to sell existing shares in a tender offer that would value the company at around $29 billion, according to people familiar with the matter, making it one of the most valuable U.S. startups on paper despite generating little revenue.”

Karpf, David. “Money Will Kill ChatGPT’s Magic.The Atlantic, 21 Dec. 2022.

“Buzzy products like ChatGPT and DALL-E 2 will have to turn a profit eventually.”

Katwala, Amit. “ChatGPT’s Fluent BS Is Compelling Because Everything Is Fluent BS.” Wired, 9 Dec. 2022.

“In a way, when you ask an AI to make you a movie, it’s just mimicking the formulaic process by which many Hollywood blockbusters get made: Look around, see what’s been successful, lift elements of it (actors, directors, plot structures) and mash them together into a shape that looks new but actually isn’t. “

Klein, Ezra. “A Skeptical Take on the A.I. Revolution.” Audio podcast episode, 12 Jan. 2023.

“Gary Marcus is an emeritus professor of psychology and neural science at N.Y.U. who has become one of the leading voices of A.I. skepticism. He’s not “anti-A.I.”; in fact, he’s founded multiple A.I. companies himself. But Marcus is deeply worried about the direction current A.I. research is headed, and even calls the release of ChatGPT A.I.’s ‘Jurassic Park moment.'”

Lin, Connie. “OpenAI ChatGPT Is Easily Tricked. Here’s How. FastCo. 12 May 2022.

“.. crucially, ChatGPT is not perfect. As genius as its answers seem, the technology can still be easily thwarted in many ways. Here, a short list of times when it might just fail you:

  • IF YOU ASK ABOUT AN ESOTERIC TOPIC
  • IF YOU GIVE IT TASKS THAT REQUIRE FACTUAL ACCURACY, SUCH AS REPORTING THE NEWS
  • IF YOU WANT IT TO UNWIND BIAS
  • IF YOU NEED THE VERY LATEST DATA
Loizos, Connie. “Is ChatGPT a ‘Virus That Has Been Released into the Wild’?TechCrunch, 10 Dec. 2022.

“While machines are not yet as intelligent as people, the tech that OpenAI has since released is taking many aback (including Musk), with some critics fearful that it could be our undoing, especially with more sophisticated tech reportedly coming soon.”

Marchese, David. “An A.I. Pioneer on What We Should Really Fear.The New York Times, 26 Dec. 2022.

“… computer scientist Yejin Choi, a 2022 recipient of the prestigious MacArthur ‘genius’ grant … has been doing groundbreaking research on developing common sense and ethical reasoning in A.I. ‘There is a bit of hype around A.I. potential, as well as A.I. fear,’ admits Choi…”

Mollick, Ethan. “Has AI Reached the Point Where a Software Program Can Do Better Work than You?NPR, 16 Dec. 2022.

“So the best way to think about this is you are chatting with a omniscient, eager-to-please intern who sometimes lies to you.”

Preston, Laura. “Becoming a Chatbot: My Life as a Real Estate AI’s Human Backup.The Guardian, 13 Dec. 2022.

Essay on using automated intelligence as support for a real-estate company.

Rand-Henriksen, Morten. “Forget Crypto, Blockchain, NFTs, and Web3: The next Phase of the Web Is Defined by AI Generation.LinkedIn, 29 Aug. 2022.

“The motivations of these so-called “artificial intelligences” is to fulfill their assigned task: to perform better than their previous iteration. Entirely artificial. The motivations of the people deploying these AIs on the world is to use them to make profit at any cost to society. Our motivation in using them is therefore the first and last bastion against being turned into advertising consuming bots.”

Schliesser, Eric. “What ChatGPT Reveals about the Collapse of Political/Corporate Support for Humanities/Higher Education.Crooked Timber, 5 Jan. 2023.

“…as I started to ask it more challenging academic and intellectual questions, including composing syllabi or writing student essays, I was both impressed by some of the output (it produced a lovely short essay on why Ibn Tufayl presents two creation stories in Hayy ibn yaqzan) and taken aback how often it simply makes up stuff out of whole cloth (including completely fake publications by me).”

Schroeder, Ray. “Deconstructing ChatGPT on the Future of Continuing Education.” Inside Higher Ed, 14 Dec. 2022.

“I wondered what this release might mean for the future of continuing higher education. Of course, nothing had yet been written about the potential of this just-released version, so I asked ChatGPT to write a short poem about it. In just three seconds, far faster than I could have typed the words, the poem was complete on my screen”

Schroeder, Ray. “GPT in Higher Education.” Inside Higher Ed, 18 Jan. 2023.

“We are not without precedent confronting the dilemma of how to respond to a new technology that impacts learner responses in traditional quizzes and exams. In the mid-1960s when hand calculators were developed, and later programmable calculators, educators in math and science were confronted with a similar challenge.”

Seife, Charles. “The Alarming Deceptions at the Heart of an Astounding New Chatbot.Slate, 13 Dec. 2022.

“With almost no hesitation, the A.I. spit out a bunch of references. It declared that my Wikipedia page was its source for the courses I teach (the Wikipedia page doesn’t have, and never has had, such a list.) My education at Berkeley, it said, came from my New York Times obituary, which it cited with a URL that looked like it had come from the Times website: https://www.nytimes.com/2021/04/12/books/charles-seife-dead.html. Of course, no such obituary ever existed. The A.I. was making up BS references to back up its BS facts.”

Stern, Jacob. “Five Remarkable Chats That Will Help You Understand ChatGPT.The Atlantic, 8 Dec. 2022.

“The powerful new chatbot could make all sorts of trouble. But for now, it’s mostly a meme machine.”

Tufekci, Zeynep. “What Would Plato Say About ChatGPT?The New York Times, 15 Dec. 2022.

“Unless you already knew the answer or were an expert in the field, you could be subjected to a high-quality intellectual snow job. You would face, as Plato predicted, ‘the show of wisdom without the reality.'”

Viljoen, Salomé. “Data as Property?Phenomenal World, 16 Oct. 2020.

“On the problems of propertarian and dignitarian approaches to data governance.”

Walker Rettberg, Jill. “ChatGPT Is Multilingual but Monocultural, and It’s Learning Your Values.Jill/Txt, 6 Dec. 2022.

“My conclusion, after reading up on all this, is that ChatGPT is multilingual but monocultural—but that by using it, we’re all helping to train it to align its values with our own.”

Warner, John. “ChatGPT Can’t Kill Anything Worth Preserving.The Biblioracle Recommends, 11 Dec. 2022.

“If an algorithm is the death of high school English, maybe that’s an okay thing.”

Warner, John. “How About We Put Learning at the Center? Inside Higher Ed, 6 Jan. 2023.

“To my eye, too much of the ChatGPT discourse is about how to corral and control this technology so we can keep students doing the same stuff they’ve been doing. This presumes that the status quo is working in terms of student learning, but who seriously believes that?”

Watkins, Ryan. “Update Your Course Syllabus for ChatGPT.Medium, 19 Dec. 2022.

“Hopefully these suggestions will help you feel better prepared to teach in a classroom where chatGPT is widely available on your students’ phones and computers.”

Research and Technical

Bender, Emily M., et al. “On the Dangers of Stochastic Parrots: Can Language Models Be Too Big?Proceedings of the 2021 ACM Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency. ACM, 2021, pp. 610-23.

“For all of these reasons, we should proceed with caution. But used wisely, ChatGPT may actually make our teaching more rather than less humane. By using AI to streamline our analytic tasks, we can devote more time to fostering deeper connections with our students—connections that not only benefit them, but also serve as a much-needed source of rejuvenation for educators who have been stretched thin by years of teaching during a pandemic. In this sense, ChatGPT can be seen as a gift—a tool that can help us reconnect with our students and reignite our passion for teaching.”

Breslin, Catherine. “What Are Large Language Models?ML Musings, 27 Apr. 2022.

“But what exactly are these large language models, and why are they suddenly so popular?”

Brundage, Miles, et al. “Toward Trustworthy AI Development: Mechanisms for Supporting Verifiable Claims.” arXiv:2004.07213, arXiv, 20 Apr. 2020.

“With the recent wave of progress in artificial intelligence (AI) has come a growing awareness of the large-scale impacts of AI systems, and recognition that existing regulations and norms in industry and academia are insufficient to ensure responsible AI development. In order for AI developers to earn trust from system users, customers, civil society, governments, and other stakeholders that they are building AI responsibly, they will need to make verifiable claims to which they can be held accountable. Those outside of a given organization also need effective means of scrutinizing such claims. This report suggests various steps that different stakeholders can take to improve the verifiability of claims made about AI systems and their associated development processes, with a focus on providing evidence about the safety, security, fairness, and privacy protection of AI systems. We analyze ten mechanisms for this purpose–spanning institutions, software, and hardware–and make recommendations aimed at implementing, exploring, or improving those mechanisms.”

Castelvecchi, Davide. “Are ChatGPT and AlphaCode Going to Replace Programmers?Nature, Dec. 2022.

“Whereas ChatGPT is a general-purpose conversation engine, AlphaCode is more specialized: it was trained exclusively on how humans answered questions from software-writing contests. “AlphaCode was designed and trained specifically for competitive programming, not for software engineering,” David Choi, a research engineer at DeepMind and a co-author of the Science paper, told Nature in an e-mail.

Chengeli, Si. Learn Prompting. Online course. 31 Dec. 2022.

“With many recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI), prompt engineering has become a sought-after and valuable skill for getting AI to do what you want. This course focuses on applied PE techniques, and we expect readers to have minimal knowledge of machine learning.”

Cole, David. “The Chinese Room Argument.The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2020.

“The narrow conclusion of the argument is that programming a digital computer may make it appear to understand language but could not produce real understanding. Hence the “Turing Test” is inadequate. Searle argues that the thought experiment underscores the fact that computers merely use syntactic rules to manipulate symbol strings, but have no understanding of meaning or semantics. The broader conclusion of the argument is that the theory that human minds are computer-like computational or information processing systems is refuted.”

Goodin, Dan. “ChatGPT Is Enabling Script Kiddies to Write Functional Malware.Ars Technica, 6 Jan. 2023, .

“‘It’s still too early to decide whether or not ChatGPT capabilities will become the new favorite tool for participants in the Dark Web,’ company researchers wrote. ‘However, the cybercriminal community has already shown significant interest and are jumping into this latest trend to generate malicious code.'”

Google Research. “, 2022 & beyond: Language, Vision and Generative Models.Google AI Blog.

“With this post, I am kicking off a series in which researchers across Google will highlight some exciting progress we’ve made in 2022 and present our vision for 2023 and beyond. I will begin with a discussion of language, computer vision, multi-modal models, and generative machine learning models.”

GPTZero. “Demo, GPT-3.GPTZero | Discover AI Use Cases.

“GPTZero is an app that detects essays written by the impressive AI-powered language model known as ChatGPT. Edward Tian, a computer science major who is minoring in journalism, spent part of his winter break creating GPTZero, which he said can ‘quickly and efficiently’ decipher whether a human or ChatGPT authored an essay.”

Hwang, Gwo-Jen, et al. “Vision, Challenges, Roles and Research Issues of Artificial Intelligence in Education.Computers and Education: Artificial Intelligence, vol. 1, Jan. 2020.

“Although AIED [Artificial Intelligence in Education] has been identified as the primary research focus in the field of computers and education, the interdisciplinary nature of AIED presents a unique challenge for researchers with different disciplinary backgrounds. In this paper, we present the definition and roles of AIED studies from the perspective of educational needs. We propose a framework to show the considerations of implementing AIED in different learning and teaching settings.”

Karpathy, Andrej. “Let’s Build GPT: From Scratch, in Code, Spelled Out. Video. 2023. YouTube.

“We build a Generatively Pretrained Transformer (GPT), following the paper “Attention is All You Need” and OpenAI’s GPT-2 / GPT-3. We talk about connections to ChatGPT, which has taken the world by storm. We watch GitHub Copilot, itself a GPT, help us write a GPT”

Liu, Alan. “Assessing Data Workflows for Common Data ‘Moves’ Across Disciplines.Alan Liu, 5 May 2017.

“This is a slightly revised version of my position paper for the “Always Already Computational: Collections as Data” Forum, UC Santa Barbara, March 1-3, 2017. (The original version is included among a collection of such position statements by participants in the conference.) A further revised version was later published as “Data Moves: Libraries and Data Science Workflows,” in Libraries and Archives in the Digital Age, ed. Susan L. Mizruchi (Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020), 211-19, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-33373-7_15.”

Metz, Cade. “OpenAI Plans to Up the Ante in Tech’s A.I. Race.New York Times, 14 Mar. 2023.

Update to foundational model: “GPT-4, which learns its skills by analyzing huge amounts of data culled from the internet, improves on what powered the original ChatGPT in several ways. It is more precise. It can, for example, ace the Uniform Bar Exam, instantly calculate someone’s tax liability and provide detailed descriptions of images. . . . ‘I don’t want to make it sound like we have solved reasoning or intelligence, which we certainly have not,’ Sam Altman, OpenAI’s chief executive, said in an interview. ‘But this is a big step forward from what is already out there.'”

Offert, Fabian. “On the Emergence of General Computation from Artificial Intelligence.Fabian Offert, 5 Dec. 2022.

“We are immediately reminded of the fundamental limits of computation. Granted, Turing showed that there can be no general algorithm that solves the halting problem, not that the halting problem cannot be solved for a specific program like the one described above.”

OpenAI. “ChatGPT FAQ.

From the company behind ChatGPT: “Commonly asked questions about ChatGPT”

OpenAI. “ChatGPT: Optimizing Language Models for Dialogue.OpenAI, 30 Nov. 2022.

From the company behind ChatGPT: “We’ve trained a model called ChatGPT which interacts in a conversational way. The dialogue format makes it possible for ChatGPT to answer followup questions, admit its mistakes, challenge incorrect premises, and reject inappropriate requests.”

OpenAI. “New AI Classifier for Indicating AI-Written Text.OpenAI, 31 Jan. 2023.

“Our classifier is not fully reliable. In our evaluations on a “challenge set” of English texts, our classifier correctly identifies 26% of AI-written text (true positives) as “likely AI-written,” while incorrectly labeling human-written text as AI-written 9% of the time (false positives). Our classifier’s reliability typically improves as the length of the input text increases. Compared to our previously released classifier, this new classifier is significantly more reliable on text from more recent AI systems.”

OpenAI. “New and Improved Content Moderation Tooling.” OpenAI, 10 Aug. 2022.

“We are introducing a new and improved content moderation tool. The Moderation endpoint improves upon our previous content filter, and is available for free today to OpenAI API developers.”

Ouyang, Long, et al. “Training Language Models to Follow Instructions with Human Feedback.” arXiv:2203.02155, arXiv, 4 Mar. 2022.

“Starting with a set of labeler-written prompts and prompts submitted through the OpenAI API, we collect a dataset of labeler demonstrations of the desired model behavior, which we use to fine-tune GPT-3 using supervised learning. We then collect a dataset of rankings of model outputs, which we use to further fine-tune this supervised model using reinforcement learning from human feedback. We call the resulting models InstructGPT. In human evaluations on our prompt distribution, outputs from the 1.3B parameter InstructGPT model are preferred to outputs from the 175B GPT-3, despite having 100x fewer parameters. Moreover, InstructGPT models show improvements in truthfulness and reductions in toxic output generation while having minimal performance regressions on public NLP datasets. Even though InstructGPT still makes simple mistakes, our results show that fine-tuning with human feedback is a promising direction for aligning language models with human intent.”

Shanahan, Murray. “Talking about Large Language Models.ArXiv, vol. 2212.03552v.2, Nov. 2022.

“The more adept LLMs become at mimicking human language, the more vulnerable we become to anthropomorphism, to seeing the systems in which they are embedded as more human-like than they really are. This trend is amplified by the natural tendency to use philosophically loaded terms, such as ‘knows’, ‘believes’, and ‘thinks’, when describing these systems. To mitigate this trend, this paper advocates the practice of repeatedly stepping back to remind ourselves of how LLMs, and the systems of which they form a part, actually work.”

Woolf, Max. “How To Make Custom AI-Generated Text With GPT-2.Max Woolf’s Blog, 4 Sept. 2019.

Early version of technology behind ChatGPT explored: “Hopefully, this article gave you ideas on how to finetune and generate texts creatively. There’s still a lot of untapped potential, and there are still many cool applications that have been untouched, and many cool datasets that haven’t been used for AI text generation. GPT-2 will likely be used more for mass-producing crazy erotica than fake news. However, GPT-2 and the Transformer architecture aren’t the end-game of AI text generation. Not by a long shot.”

Additional Directories and Lists

Alexander, Bryan. “AI in Education Resource Directory.” Google Doc.

This document serves as a landing page for links to other documents, webpages, shared folders, including:

  • Lists of AI Tools
  • Compilations of Readings and Videos
  • Resources for Instructors
  • Links to AI Institutional Policies & Info on Faculty Development Websites
Generative AI Tools and Resources.Google Doc.

Curated by Dr. Kim DeBacco, Senior Instructional Designer , Online Teaching and Learning, UCLA.

Merrill, Margaret. “ChatGPT Resources.Google Doc.

Curated by Dr. Margaret Merrill, Senior Instructional Design Consultant, University of California, Davis.

ChatGPT and AI – Selected Links

A Smattering of Collected ChatGPT and AI Links


AI in Education Resource Directory. https://docs.google.com/document/d/1E8b-aY6R-CUMgXe0UTCsdyHWHDatBa1DaQBvdcuA_Kk/edit. Accessed 20 Jan. 2023.

  • This document serves as a landing page for links to other documents, webpages, shared folders, including:
    • Lists of AI Tools
    • Compilations of Readings and Videos
    • Resources for Instructors
    • Links to AI Institutional Policies & Info on Faculty Development Websites
    • AI in Education Google Group
    • Links to AI Institutional Policies & Info on Faculty Development Websites
“AI Text Generators: Sources to Stimulate Discussion among Teachers.” Google Docs, 11 Jan. 2023, https://docs.google.com/document/d/1V1drRG1XlWTBrEwgGqd-cCySUB12JrcoamB5i16-Ezw/edit.

  • This is an open and evolving list put together by a writing teacher who is not an expert in the field, with suggestions from a few other more knowledgeable folks.
AI Unleashed | Inside Higher Ed. https://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/higher-ed-gamma/ai-unleashed. Accessed 20 Jan. 2023.

  • “As a historian I should be cautious and should beware of frenetic enthusiasm. We know all too well that highly touted technologies, like the blockchain, frequently fail to live up to the hype. So let me echo the Lincoln Steffens’s words after visiting the Soviet Union in 1919, fully aware that the phrase is fraught with irony: “I have seen the Future and it works.'”
    Alby, Cynthia. “ChatGPT: A Must-See Before the Semester Begins.” Faculty Focus, 9 Jan. 2023.

    • “While foundational knowledge is required for higher-order thinking, we often focus primarily or almost exclusively on the foundational. In this new paradigm, we would point students toward the appropriate modules to develop that foundational knowledge, and we’d move students as soon as possible into problem/project/case-based learning, much of it personalized and experiential or field-based. We would be mostly working with, working alongside, facilitating and supporting, and letting AI do some of the heavy lifting.”
    Appleton, Maggie. “The Expanding Dark Forest and Generative AI.” M, 1 Jan. 2023, https://maggieappleton.com/ai-dark-forest.

    • “But I think the sheer volume and scale of what’s coming will be meaningfully different. And I think we’re unprepared. Or at least, I am.”
    Artificial Intelligence Writing. https://fctl.ucf.edu/teaching-resources/promoting-academic-integrity/artificial-intelligence-writing/.

    • FCTL has assembled a set of ideas in three categories:
      • Category 1: Neutralize the Software
      • Category 2: Teach Ethics, Integrity, and Career-Related Skills
      • Category 3: Lean into the Software’s Abilities
    Barre, Betsy. “Will ChatGPT Make Us Better, Happier Teachers?” Center for the Advancement of Teaching, 20 Jan. 2023, https://cat.wfu.edu/2023/01/chatgpt/.

    • “For all of these reasons, we should proceed with caution. But used wisely, ChatGPT may actually make our teaching more rather than less humane. By using AI to streamline our analytic tasks, we can devote more time to fostering deeper connections with our students – connections that not only benefit them, but also serve as a much-needed source of rejuvenation for educators who have been stretched thin by years of teaching during a pandemic. In this sense, ChatGPT can be seen as a gift – a tool that can help us reconnect with our students and reignite our passion for teaching.”
    Basbøll, Thomas. “Examining the Moment.” Inframethodology, 14 Dec. 2022, https://blog.cbs.dk/inframethodology/?p=5879.

    • “In this post, I will suggest a form of examination that I consider essentially ideal, even if we had no worries about plagiarism or artifical intelligence, but one that the increasingly sophisticated technologies in this area now make virtually necessary. That is, I’m hopeful that the fact that the take-home assignment no longer constitutes a serious test of the student’s knowledge of a subject or ability to write about it will force us to adopt a form of testing that was always much more serious.”
    Bender, Emily M., et al. “On the Dangers of Stochastic Parrots: Can Language Models Be Too Big? 🦜.” Proceedings of the 2021 ACM Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency, ACM, 2021, pp. 610–23. DOI.org (Crossref), https://doi.org/10.1145/3442188.3445922.
    Bender, Emily, and Chirag Shah. “All-Knowing Machines Are a Fantasy.” IAI TV – Changing How the World Thinks, 13 Dec. 2022, https://iai.tv/articles/all-knowing-machines-are-a-fantasy-auid-2334.

    • “The idea of an all-knowing computer program comes from science fiction and should stay there. Despite the seductive fluency of ChatGPT and other language models, they remain unsuitable as sources of knowledge. We must fight against the instinct to trust a human-sounding machine”
    Birhane, Abeba. “ChatGPT, Galactica, and the Progress Trap.” Wired, 9 Dec. 2022. www.wired.com, https://www.wired.com/story/large-language-models-critique/.

    • “People at the margins of society who are disproportionately impacted by these systems are experts at vetting them, due to their lived experience. Not coincidentally, crucial contributions that demonstrate the failure of these large language models and ways to mitigate the problems are often made by scholars of color—many of them Black women—and junior scholars who are underfunded and working in relatively precarious conditions.”
    Bogost, Ian. “ChatGPT Is Dumber Than You Think.” The Atlantic, 7 Dec. 2022, https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2022/12/chatgpt-openai-artificial-intelligence-writing-ethics/672386/.

    • “Treat it like a toy, not a tool.”
    Bowers-Abbott, Miriam. “What Are We Doing About AI Essays?” Faculty Focus, 4 Jan. 2023, https://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/teaching-with-technology-articles/what-are-we-doing-about-ai-essays/.

    • “A few experiments with online AI software services suggest some ways to address AI essay cheating, and interventions will require refining and revisiting course prompts.”
    Bowman, Emma. “A College Student Created an App That Can Tell Whether AI Wrote an Essay.” NPR, 9 Jan. 2023. NPR, https://www.npr.org/2023/01/09/1147549845/gptzero-ai-chatgpt-edward-tian-plagiarism.

    • “Edward Tian, a 22-year-old senior at Princeton University, has built an app to detect whether text is written by ChatGPT”
    Breaking Free From Higher Ed’s Iron Triangle | Inside Higher Ed. https://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/higher-ed-gamma/breaking-free-higher-ed%E2%80%99s-iron-triangle.

    • “Yes, we can control costs, reduce performance gaps and improve learning outcomes without sacrificing quality or rigor.”
    Breslin, Catherine. “What Are Large Language Models?” ML Musings, 27 Apr. 2022, https://buildingml.substack.com/p/what-are-large-language-models.

    • “But what exactly are these large language models, and why are they suddenly so popular?”
    Bruff, Derek. “A Bigger, Badder Clippy: Enhancing Student Learning with AI Writing Tools.” Agile Learning, 5 Jan. 2023, https://derekbruff.org/?p=3995.

    • On December 22, 2023, Bryan Alexander hosted an edition of his Future Trends Forum focused on ChatGPT and other AI (artificial intelligence) writing generators and their potential impact on education: “I wanted to share a few highlights and observations here on the blog.”
    —. “Three Things to Know about AI Tools and Teaching.” Agile Learning, 20 Dec. 2022, https://derekbruff.org/?p=3970.

    • I hope these three observations are useful as you make sense of this new technology landscape. Here they are again for easy reference:
      • We are going to have to start teaching our students how AI generation tools work.
      • When used intentionally, AI tools can augment and enhance student learning, even towards traditional learning goals.
      • We will need to update our learning goals for students in light of new AI tools, and that can be a good thing.
    Brundage, Miles, et al. Toward Trustworthy AI Development: Mechanisms for Supporting Verifiable Claims. arXiv:2004.07213, arXiv, 20 Apr. 2020. arXiv.org, https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2004.07213.
    Caines, Autumm. “ChatGPT and Good Intentions in Higher Ed.” Is a Liminal Space, 29 Dec. 2022, http://autumm.edtech.fm/2022/12/29/chatgpt-and-good-intentions-in-higher-ed/.
    Cassidy, Caitlin. “Australian Universities to Return to ‘Pen and Paper’ Exams after Students Caught Using AI to Write Essays.” The Guardian, 10 Jan. 2023. The Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2023/jan/10/universities-to-return-to-pen-and-paper-exams-after-students-caught-using-ai-to-write-essays.
    Castelvecchi, Davide. “Are ChatGPT and AlphaCode Going to Replace Programmers?” Nature, Dec. 2022. www.nature.com, https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-022-04383-z.
    ChatGPT | UCI Division of Teaching Excellence and Innovation. https://dtei.uci.edu/chatgpt/. Accessed 7 Feb. 2023.
    “ChatGPT, Chatbots and Artificial Intelligence in Education.” Ditch That Textbook, 17 Dec. 2022, https://ditchthattextbook.com/ai/.
    “ChatGPT Creator OpenAI in Talks for Tender Offer Valuing Company at $29 Billion – WSJ.” US News & World Report, 6 Jan. 2023, //www.usnews.com/news/technology/articles/2023-01-05/chatgpt-creator-openai-in-talks-for-tender-offer-valuing-company-at-29-billion-wsj.
    ChatGPT FAQ. https://help.openai.com/en/articles/6783457-chatgpt-faq. Accessed 15 Dec. 2022.
    “ChatGPT: Optimizing Language Models for Dialogue.” OpenAI, 30 Nov. 2022, https://openai.com/blog/chatgpt/.
    “ChatGPT, Parlor Trick or More? For Research, to Write This Blog…?” UC IT Blog, https://cio.ucop.edu/chat-gpt-parlor-trick-or-more-for-research-to-write-this-blog/. Accessed 20 Jan. 2023.
    ChatGPT: Threat or Menace? | Inside Higher Ed. https://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/higher-ed-gamma/chatgpt-threat-or-menace. Accessed 20 Jan. 2023.
    Chen, Brian X. “A.I. Bots Can’t Report This Column. But They Can Improve It.” The New York Times, 1 Feb. 2023. NYTimes.com, https://www.nytimes.com/2023/02/01/technology/personaltech/chatgpt-ai-bots-editing.html.
    Chengeli, Si. Welcome | Learn Prompting. 31 Dec. 2022, https://learnprompting.org/docs/intro.
    “Classroom Policies for AI Generative Tools.” Google Docs, https://docs.google.com/document/d/1RMVwzjc1o0Mi8Blw_-JUTcXv02b2WRH86vw7mi16W3U/edit?usp=embed_facebook. Accessed 4 Feb. 2023.
    Cole, David. “The Chinese Room Argument.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2020. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2020/entries/chinese-room/.
    Coping With ChatGPT | Inside Higher Ed. https://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/law-policy%E2%80%94and-it/coping-chatgpt. Accessed 20 Jan. 2023.
    Cottom, Tressie McMillan. “Opinion | Human This Christmas.” The New York Times, 20 Dec. 2022. NYTimes.com, https://www.nytimes.com/2022/12/20/opinion/chatgpt-writing-ai.html.
    Creswell Baez, Johanna. “The Impact of ChatGPT and AI on Higher Education: Navigating the Rapidly Changing Landscape.” Medium, 13 Jan. 2023, https://medium.com/@jc2515/the-impact-of-chatgpt-and-ai-on-higher-education-dca7f579deca.
    Cummings, Robert. “AI Writing Technologies Will Force Instructors to Adapt.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 19 Sept. 2022, https://www-chronicle-com.proxy.library.georgetown.edu/blogs/letters/ai-writing-technologies-will-force-instructors-to-adapt.
    D’Agostino, Susan. “AI Writing Detection: A Losing Battle Worth Fighting.” Inside Higher Ed, 20 Jan. 2023, https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2023/01/20/academics-work-detect-chatgpt-and-other-ai-writing.
    —. “ChatGPT Advice Academics Can Use Now.” Inside Higher Ed, 12 Jan. 2023, https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2023/01/12/academic-experts-offer-advice-chatgpt.
    Daimler, Daniel. “The Trickster Machine.” Kurios & Käuflich, 10 Dec. 2022, https://kurioskonsum.substack.com/p/the-trickster-machine.
    Dastin, Jeffrey, et al. “Exclusive: ChatGPT Owner OpenAI Projects $1 Billion in Revenue by 2024 – Sources.” Reuters, 15 Dec. 2022. www.reuters.com, https://www.reuters.com/business/chatgpt-owner-openai-projects-1-billion-revenue-by-2024-sources-2022-12-15/.
    Deconstructing ChatGPT on the Future of Continuing Education | Inside Higher Ed. https://www.insidehighered.com/digital-learning/blogs/online-trending-now/deconstructing-chatgpt-future-continuing-education. Accessed 20 Jan. 2023.
    Demo, GPT-3. GPTZero | Discover AI Use Cases. https://gpt3demo.com/apps/gptzero. Accessed 20 Jan. 2023.
    Denkmann, Libby, and Alec Cowan. “How Will ChatGPT Change the the Future of Information?” KUOW, 14 Dec. 2022, https://kuow.org/stories/how-will-chatgpt-change-the-the-future-of-information.
    Dillard, Sarah. Schools Must Embrace the Looming Disruption of ChatGPT. https://www.the74million.org/article/schools-must-embrace-the-looming-disruption-of-chatgpt/. Accessed 20 Jan. 2023.
    Dirkx, Kim Josefina Hubertina, et al. “Do Secondary School Students Make Use of Effective Study Strategies When They Study on Their Own?” Applied Cognitive Psychology, vol. 33, no. 5, 2019, pp. 952–57. Wiley Online Library, https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3584.
    Eaton. “Sarah’s Thoughts: Artificial Intelligence and Academic Integrity.” Learning, Teaching and Leadership, 9 Dec. 2022, https://drsaraheaton.wordpress.com/2022/12/09/sarahs-thoughts-artificial-intelligence-and-academic-integrity/.
    eBildungslabor-Blog. “Einordnung und Nutzung von KI in der Bildung.” eBildungslabor, 11 Dec. 2022, https://ebildungslabor.de/blog/einordnung-und-nutzung-von-ki-in-der-bildung/.
    Eliot, Lance. “Sinister Prompting Of Generative AI ChatGPT Such As Email Scamming And The Coding Of Malware Is Sparking Ire By AI Ethics And AI Law.” Forbes, 3 Jan. 2023, https://www.forbes.com/sites/lanceeliot/2023/01/03/sinister-prompting-of-generative-ai-chatgpt-such-as-email-scamming-and-the-coding-of-malware-is-sparking-ire-by-ai-ethics-and-ai-law/.
    Elsen-Rooney, Michael. “NYC Blocks Access to ChatGPT on School Networks as Cheating Fears Swirl.” Chalkbeat New York, 3 Jan. 2023, https://ny.chalkbeat.org/2023/1/3/23537987/nyc-schools-ban-chatgpt-writing-artificial-intelligence.
    Esposito, Elena. Artificial Communication: How Algorithms Produce Social Intelligence. 2022. direct.mit.edu, https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/14189.001.0001.
    Eyler, Joshua [@joshua_r_eyler]. “The Moral Panic about AI & Cheating Is the Same as the Panic over Proctoring & Cheating Is the Same as the Panic That Led to Plagiarism Detection Software. People, the Vast Majority of Students DO NOT Want to Cheat. They Want to Learn. The Lack of Trust Undermines Education.” Twitter, 3 Jan. 2023, https://twitter.com/joshua_r_eyler/status/1610261710572584961.
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